1999. Critically Imperiled (G1/N1/S1): At very high risk of extinction in the jurisdiction due to very restricted range, very few populations or occurrences, very steep declines, severe threats, or other factors. 2010. Également disponible en français sous le titre « Plan de gestion du campagnol sylvestre (Microtus pinetorum) au Canada ». This management plan was drafted by Tanya Pulfer (Consulting Ecologist). Habits: Both the latin pinetorum and another common name, the pine vole, refer to a habitat this rodent occupies only in the Southeast. Clear-cut logging will result in an increase in light penetration and a reduction in soil moisture. 2001. The Woodland Vole spends a large portion of time underground in tunnel networks, burrows or nests. Its tail is very short, ranging from 16 to 24 mm and is usually only 20% of its total length (roughly the size of their hind foot; COSEWIC 2010). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42: 375-381. NatureServe, Arlington,Virginia. Desrosiers, N., R. Morin and J. Jutras. Ears: 0 .4 inches 1999, Larson et al. One to four litters are produced each year with one to five young per litter; the average is two or three. Some of woodland voles' preferred habitats include orchards, fallow fields, farms, and hardwood forests with dense leaf litter. Some populations at the edge of the range of this species are considered to be threatened or--as is the case in Michigan--of "special concern." • preferred over coarser grained or rocky soils (Whitaker and Hamilton 1998). Robert S. Hoffman & Douglas Siegel-Causey. They may also eat berries and insects. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Woodland Vole Microtus pinetorum in Canada. The Woodland Vole is considered a small sized vole compared to other North American vole species, and adults typically range from 107 to 131 mm in length (Banfield 1974, Naughton 2012). While other surveys have been completed in areas in which voles are suspected to occur, none have yielded any confirmed Woodland Vole observations. Reich, and J. Pastor. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Interaction of natality, mortality and movement during one annual cycle in a. Hale, C.M., L.E. The Woodland Vole’s habitat in Quebec receives some protection from An Act Respecting the Lands in the Domain of the State (R.S.Q., c. T-8.1) and the Sustainable Forest Development Act (R.S.Q., c. A-18.1). I.M. Ontario Nature, Toronto, Ontario. These samples show that now-arid habitats in the Southwest were once moist grasslands inhabited by woodland voles. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. temperate. They are surface burrowers, moving through thick leafmold and loose soil. Range and Habitat: The range is most of the eastern U.S., extreme southeastern Ontario, and Southwestern Quebec. It will use sandy soils of coastal areas and upland areas of the coastal plain, but organic loam/peat may be Journal of Mammalogy 19: 163-170. The fur on the back varies from light to dark brown in color. 6 pp. They inhabit orchards of the northeastern United States and cultivated fields of southern states. The Quebec and Ontario populations are separated by large distances, however the area in between has not been surveyed but does contain potentially suitable habitat for the species. The Woodland Vole has three distinguishing characteristics: its fur, size of tail, and size of eyes and ears. They can also Major foods include roots, tubers, sprouts, bark, stems, leaves, nuts, berries, and fruit. 2014). The Small mammals and bats database, developed by the Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs (MFFP), includes occurrence records of small mammals, including the Woodland Vole, in an effort to collect information on small mammals and expand the knowledge of the distribution of Woodland Voles and other small mammal species in Quebec. Belly is grayish washed with buff; hairs are dark at the base. Godschalk. Determine the current distribution and, where possible, abundance of the Woodland Vole in Canada; Address ecological and biological knowledge gaps that benefit Woodland Vole conservation; Investigate and quantify threats to the Woodland Vole and their habitat; Support stewardship activities and outreach programs that mitigate threats and conserve suitable habitat. NatureServe. 3.2 Investigate the severity and impacts of existing and potential threats (e.g., non-native invasive earthworms, deer over-browsing, targeted pest control, forest insects and disease, and roads and trails) on both Woodland Voles and their available habitat. This may be due to the increased energy demand in low temperatures, despite behavioural changes to conserve heat and energy such as limiting above ground exposure and communal huddling (Bowman et al. •**Detailed analysis of dental formations, and possibly an expert, would be needed to distinguish it from Southern Bog Lemming. Alban, D.H., and E.C. 1985. This reduces food availability as well as ground cover that Woodland Voles are highly dependent on to conceal surface runwaysFootnote15 (Byman 2011, WDNR 2013). Rhodes, D.H. and M.E. Habitat Regions; temperate; terrestrial; Terrestrial Biomes; forest; Physical Description. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. Some woodland voles may breed throughout the year if they live at low altitudes or experience mild winters. A wildlife species that may become a threatened or an endangered species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats. Sackett. Niagara Escarpment Planning and Development Act[http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_05g01_e.htm], Greenbelt Act, 2005[http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_05g01_e.htm]. Forestry 74(3): 27-287. Along coastal bays they live from the edge of the shore to spruce and birch forest in mountains. The natural history of Canadian Mammals, Canadian Museum of Nature. Habitat loss and degradation has been mainly attributed to urban development, agricultural expansion and forest conversion (Bélanger et al. Madison. Ecosystems (N.Y.), 8(8): 911–927. Weight: 0.75 - 2.0 ounces. In addition to the threats listed below, there are other possible threats to the Woodland Vole and its habitat that remain largely unknown including the impacts of forest insects and disease, and roads and trails. 2004). 1985, Whitaker and Hamilton 1998). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Population estimates from the United States are not thought to be representative of the Canadian populations (COSEWIC 2010). Habitat The woodland vole occurs in deciduous woodlands with loose sandy soils, deep humus, and heavy leaf litter. This criterion considers the assessment of all the information in the table. Results from a study conducted in Pennsylvania (Byman 2011) suggested that deer management techniques, such as exclosure fencing, may significantly increase the number of Woodland Voles within a given area (Byman 2011). 2005. Larson, B.M., J.L. Barriers separating populations include large water bodies, busy roads and densely populated urban areas. Breeding information: Woodland Voles breed nearly year round with the peak occurring in early spring. 3.1 Encourage studies that determine the home range size and the use of various habitats within the home ranges of the Woodland Vole to help mitigate the effects of forest fragmentation on the species. The other six observations for this species in Quebec were recorded between 1956 and 1976 (COSEWIC 2010). They have adapted well to a human-centric world, and can even live in cities and urban areas, as well as farms and pastures.
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