It is an irreplaceable encyclopedia of the historical knowledge available to Iranian scholars in the early fourteenth century. A history of Universal Geneve, a cult-like brand to collectors everywhere. Global historians confront more challenging intellectual problems in trying to persuade the majority of their academic colleagues (writing bounded histories and bunkered in the security of national archives), that their attempts to write on a global scale could meet the standards of a discipline deeply concerned with detail and documentation that discourages generalization beyond strictly confined geographies and periods. Nevertheless, the formulation was a first step toward an exceptionally fruitful debate and a series of analyses and reanalyses (e.g., Abu-Lughod 1989, Frank and Gills 1992, Smith 1991). They are intensifying, seem irresistible and are being welcomed as a return to the ecumenical programmes of Herodotus, Vico, Voltaire, Leibniz and von Ranke who opined ‘there is no history but universal history as it really was.’. Arabic continued to be used throughout the Iranian cultural zone (which came to include Central Asia, Anatolia, and much of South Asia) for the religious sciences, but Persian rapidly supplanted it in other arenas: secular and religious poetry, government administration, didactic prose, and history. The bias thus created is obvious. Ranke's interpretation of the Reformation as a turning point in, Historiography and Historical Thought: Islamic Tradition, Africa was in part an invention of its diaspora, a unit that became of world–historical significance because slave traders—from the sixteenth century—defined it as a place where one could legitimately develop a commerce in human beings. Africans, they thought, had much to learn from Muslims and Christians, but they brought something to the encounter as well. Universal history is a work aimed at presentation of the history of humanity as a whole, holistic unit. Throughout antiquity, Herodotus enjoyed a dubious reputation as being at the same time the father of history but also a narrator of fabulous stories (in Cicero's famous phrase). Universal history, world history or global history examines history from a global perspective. With that, the idea of ‘tradition’ as the essential quality of African life acquired a new salience in colonial ideologies. All interpretation of history and, furthermore, all historical writing, is characterized by acts of selection from a huge amount of material. History of a Universal Basic Income . As a result, historians have begun to create a new picture of international history in the second half of the twentieth century (Gaddis 1997). This development represents, in some sense, a retreat from worldwide perspectives and it often provides correctives to the sweeping assertions of the grand picture. The subject of his historical work was Rome's rise to world dominion in the time from the Punic Wars to the destruction of the Macedonian state (167 BC). By contrast, the approaches of micro-history and cultural history, which claim to supplement or replace the traditional macro-historical interpretations and which have recently become the focus of attention, have their roots especially in Anglo-American historiography. Certain nineteenth-century African–American religious leaders looked toward ‘Africa’ and ‘Ethiopia’ (although few slaves came from that kingdom), and through such language asserted Africans' important place in a universal history—in the unfolding of Christian civilization. Moreover, the religious conflicts which had arisen in Islam's first two centuries could no longer be healed; indeed, by the mid-tenth century what had been fluid if bitterly contested allegiances were transmuted into rigidly defined sectarian divisions. Ranke's interpretation of the Reformation as a turning point in universal history pointed the way and was further developed by Max Weber, who brought the potential of the modern period for rationalization, discipline, and modernization in connection with the Reformation (Die calvinistische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus). This tremendous increase of historical production reflected the political reorganization of the Mediterranean world by the establishment of the vast Hellenistic empires (and later the rise of Rome to a world power). R.S. As a consequence, the bishop was bound to develop his own distinctive concept of a universal history which would be able to convey a new sense of history. On the other hand, they stress the long-term change in the meaning of rites and images, in the concepts of order, thinking, and behavior, etc., from the late Middle Ages until the eighteenth century, and they thereby open up new sources and further knowledge to the discussion about the character of the Reformation and its historical meaning. A universal history, now lost, was presented by the Greek presbyter Philippus of Side less than a hundred years later, before AD 439. On the one hand, the advocates of these approaches stress the continuous meaning of magic and popular religion (Bob Scribner 1981), which also in Protestant countries resisted the rationalization of the interpretation of the world as well as the disciplining of belief and behavior according to the norms of the respective confessional churches. Universal Time (UT), the mean solar time of the Greenwich meridian (0° longitude). The Marxist interpretation of the Reformation as an ‘early bourgeois revolution’ (frühbürgerliche Revolution, F. Engels, M. M. Smirin, M. Steinmetz) interpreted the role of the Reformation in universal history in a revolutionary, progressive sense. Some historians, notably McNeill 1963), began to frame world history in terms of a succession of dominant ecumenes, thereby wrenching it out of the complete grip of Western history. Apart from these shifts in subject matter and emphasis, the mid-tenth century witnessed the bifurcation of historical writing into two linguistic branches. From that point down to the mid-nineteenth century Turkish-language works were composed throughout the Middle East—no surprise, since the political and military elites from the Nile to northwest India were overwhelmingly of Turkish origin during that period. Among the great themes of world history is the expansion of European power which began in the late fifteenth century and ended during the second half of the twentieth century, when the colonial states either abandoned or were expelled from their overseas possessions (see Colonization and Colonialism, History of; Imperialism, History of). (His analysis of Rome's ‘mixed constitution’ should become one of the most important subjects in the reception of ancient political theory since the Renaissance. J.J. Sheehan, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Universal (band), a 1990s Australian boy band; Albums. English historiography follows its pragmatic traditions also in this respect, and—apart from the revisionism of the English Reformation mostly lead by Catholic historians—it is little interested in the theoretical and methodological discussions about the macro-historical role of the Reformation. Historians now had to grapple with the collapse of the unitary caliphate and the rise of a host of warlord-dominated regimes throughout the Islamic lands—in short, the political disintegration of the community of believers. A number of recent works on the revolutions of 1848, such as Jonathan Sperber's account of the Rhineland, have shown how tensions between central and local authorities affected both the origins and outcome of the revolution. In the modern era, the French revolution inspired Tocqueville, the Bolshevik revolution, Trotsky, the rise of Italian fascism, Salvemini, Nazi totalitarianism, Arendt, the world wars, Churchill—the list might easily be extended to include many other occasions when, to borrow Hegel's phrase, men's hopes were destroyed on history's slaughter bench. Among the most notable cultural historians were: Bernhard Ankermann (1859–1943), who, unlike the majority of cultural historians who wrote universal histories of humankind, believed that insufficient data only allowed for the reconstruction of diffusion in particular regions; Leo Frobenius (1873–1938), a student of Ratzel who elaborated the latter's migration theory into a theory of cultural areas (Kulturkreise in German); and Fritz Graebner (1877–1934), the author of Methode der Ethnologie (1911), arguably the most influential theoretical and methodological work of cultural history. In finding voices and viewpoints to construct histories on a global scale, historians (alive to the second cosmopolitan enlightenment that emerged during the closing years of an otherwise dark twentieth century) have not found it difficult to detach their narratives from another politically correct but romanticized appeasement of the underprivileged on the one hand, or from the implicit denigration of non-Western people and cultures, that flows from Eurocentric convergence and modernization theory on the other.
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